The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is releasing a draft assessment on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing activities on drinking water resources in the US. The assessment, done at the request of Congress, shows that while hydraulic fracturing activities in the US are carried out in a way that have not led to widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water resources, there are potential vulnerabilities in the water lifecycle that could impact drinking water. The assessment follows the water used for hydraulic fracturing from water acquisition, chemical mixing at the well pad site, well injection of fracturing fluids, the collection of hydraulic fracturing wastewater — including flowback and produced water — and wastewater treatment and disposal
“EPA’s draft assessment will give state regulators, tribes and local communities and industry around the country a critical resource to identify how best to protect public health and their drinking water resources,” said Dr Thomas A. Burke, EPA’s Science Advisor and Deputy Assistant Administrator of EPA’s Office of Research and Development. “It is the most complete compilation of scientific data to date, including over 950 sources of information, published papers, numerous technical reports, information from stakeholders and peer-reviewed EPA scientific reports.”
EPA’s review of data sources available to the agency found specific instances where well integrity and waste water management related to hydraulic fracturing activities impacted drinking water resources, but they were small compared with the large number of hydraulically fractured wells across the country. The report provides information about potential vulnerabilities, some of which are not unique to hydraulic fracturing, to drinking water resources, but was not designed to be a list of documented impacts.
These vulnerabilities to drinking water resources include:
- Water withdrawals in areas with low water availability;
- Hydraulic fracturing conducted directly into formations containing drinking water resources;
- Inadequately cased or cemented wells resulting in below ground migration of gases and liquids;
- Inadequately treated wastewater discharged into drinking water resources; and
- Spills of hydraulic fluids and hydraulic fracturing wastewater, including flowback and produced water.
Also released today were nine peer-reviewed EPA scientific reports. These reports were a part of EPA’s overall hydraulic fracturing drinking water study and contributed to the findings outlined in the draft assessment. Over 20 peer-reviewed articles or reports were published as part of this study.
The study will be finalized after review by the Science Advisory Board and (SAB) public review and comment. The Federal Register Notice with information on the SAB review and how to comment on the draft assessment will be published on 5 June.
Click here to view peer-reviewed EPA scientific reports that contributed to the draft assessment.
Click here to read peer-reviewed articles related to the study.