Types of university students

When analysing the types of students, different factors can be used as a basis for dividing them into groups. These may include attitudes towards learning, form of education (budget or contract), chosen profession, age category of the first-year student, student's interests, learning level, level of education, learning success (academic achievement), etc.

The following student typologies are of particular interest:

  • Typology of the student according to value orientations (orientation towards education as a profession, desire to realise oneself in the profession).
  • Typology by professional motivation and attitude towards activity.
  • Typology by the nature of the activity.
  • Typology by peculiarities of adaptation to learning activities in higher education institution.

Typology of students by value orientations

While studying in HEIs, students are guided by different groups of values in getting a profession.

The first group of students looks at education as a profession. These students want to realise themselves in their profession, to pursue postgraduate studies. This group accounts for approximately one third of all university graduates.

The second group is business students. These students are less interested in the profession than the first group. For them, education acts as a tool in the process of creating their own business. This is approximately 26% of the total number of students.

The third group of students is "undecided". For students in this group education and profession do not represent the same interest as in the first groups, their everyday life, personal problems, family problems are in the foreground.

Typology by professional motivation and attitude towards activity.

Students view studying at a university from various life positions: some of them see the acquisition of a profession as the basis of their motivation for studying (56-62%), others see the opportunity to engage in science and research (5-15%), while a third group of students views studying as an opportunity to live the student life (8-18%), to become cool (33-39%) and to master languages (17-41%).

Typology according to the nature of students' activities and behaviour in the sphere of learning and cognition.

According to the type of activity, students are divided into the following groups, each of which has its own pattern of behaviour:

  • The type of personality of students focused on knowledge more extensive than that prescribed by the HEI curriculum. Their social activity is much more active than that of their fellow students.
  • The type of students focused on narrow specialisation. Their spiritual aspirations are narrowed down to the scope of "near-professional".
  • The type of students whose cognitive activity is limited only by the framework of the curriculum. The number of this group is high - 26.8%.

Typology by attitude towards studies

Psychologists and educators divide students into the following groups in relation to learning (basic principles of activity):

The group of students striving to master knowledge, professional skills and abilities. They are able to work independently, have a creative approach to the learning process. Such students have a broader interest in knowledge than the curriculum provides for.

For this group of students, the principle of activity lies in the words "a little bit of everything is better". Their knowledge is often superficial, as they get involved in many activities without fully engaging in any of them. The reason for such superficiality is that they quickly tire of deep insight into subjects and academic disciplines.

A group of students who pay attention only to those disciplines which they think are necessary for their professional activity, i.e. the principle of activity of such students is exclusively professional in nature.

Students who study the subjects they are interested in. They often skip classes. Usually their professional interests are not formed. The principle of activity of such students is selective.

A group of students who come to university either at the insistence of their parents or with someone to keep them company. They do not show interest in learning in any field and constantly miss classes. By the principle of activity: "random people".

Based on the analysis of students' practical activities, the paper revealed that the main priorities of student activities are: academic and professional, socio-political; cultural and spiritual; collective (communication in the team).

In addition to the above typologies, it is possible to identify types of students.

Аccording to the orientation of their learning activity motives

  • orientation towards learning a profession;
  • knowledge acquisition orientation;
  • orientation towards graduation;

The type of temperament

As is known, the temperament of the person affects not only the manifestation of feelings and speed of shifting attention, but also other mental processes. The nervous system provides the performance of personality, the ability to long and concentrate to study the material, affects the selection of techniques. Those who have a strong nervous system learn "by storm", not being afraid to work at night, to use cheat sheets. Students with a weak nervous system cannot work at such a pace, and therefore often fall into the ranks of underachievers in one subject or another. An increase in stressful situations affects the personality and the learning process.

Thus, teaching in higher education should be of a differentiated nature, taking into account the typology of students. The considered typologies can help the teacher to find an individual approach to the student, to eliminate difficulties in learning, to raise self-esteem, to establish communication in the student community.